Police in Kazakhstan detained about 500 people on Sunday after dispersing protests against an uncompetitive presidential election set to confirm Kassym-Jomart Tokayev as the successor to veteran leader Nursultan Nazarbayev.

Nazarbayev, who had run the oil-rich former Soviet republic for almost three decades before stepping down in March, and retains sweeping powers, hand-picked the 66-year-old diplomat to succeed him, making the outcome of the vote against challengers with little political profile all but certain.

Two exit polls published by local pollsters gave Tokayev about 70 per cent of the vote.

Hundreds people chanting “Shame! Shame!” staged protests on Sunday in Almaty and Nur-Sultan, the capital city that was renamed after Nazarbayev at Tokayev’s suggestion.

But a smooth transfer of power is positive news for neighbouring Russia and China, and for foreign energy and mining companies that have invested hundreds of billions of dollars.

For many of Kazakhstan’s 12 million registered voters, Tokayev, the interim president and also a former prime minister, was the only familiar face among seven candidates in a brief and uneventful campaign.

“Well, Nazarbayev is no longer on the ballot and I don’t know any of the other candidates,” said Natalya, a pensioner, after casting her vote on Sunday for Tokayev.

Protests dispersed

Nazarbayev, 78, who holds the official title of Yelbasy, or national leader, and continues to run the ruling Nur Otan party, routinely took over 90 per cent of the vote in elections described by Western observers as neither free nor fair.

Kazakhstan’s rubber-stamp parliament, whose upper chamber Tokayev chaired before assuming the presidency, is devoid of opposition, and dissent is largely stifled through control of traditional and electronic media and social networks.

A woman speaks to Kazakh police as they block demonstrators during an anti-government protest during the presidential elections in Nur-Sultan, the capital city of Kazakhstan on Sunday. (Alexei Filippov/Associated Press)

Telegram, a popular mobile messaging app, was inaccessible on Sunday in Almaty, Kazakhstan’s largest city, and Facebook was also blocked for hours early in the day.

Reuters correspondents in Almaty and Nur-Sultan saw police clad in riot gear detain dozens of demonstrators as they forcefully dispersed rallies. The Interior Ministry later said police had detained about 500 people, describing them as “radical elements seeking to destabilize society.”

Deputy Interior Minister Marat Kozhayev said two policemen had been hurt by rocks hurled at them from the crowd and one sustained an eye injury from pepper spray.

One foreign reporter based in Almaty posted a photo of himself with a black eye sitting inside a police vehicle after being detained, but said the bruise was a result of falling on a policeman’s knee rather than being struck deliberately. 

After casting his ballot in Nur-Sultan, Tokayev urged both police and protesters to be tolerant and planned to include young activists critical of the government in a “special committee” to promote dialogue.

Uncertainty lingers

Tokayev had and he had no doubt that he would win the election and promised to take guidance from Nazarbayev on strategic matters.

The arrangement under which Nazarbayev effectively remains in charge ensures policy continuity — but also means political uncertainty will linger until he withdraws from politics.

Former Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaye, right, casts his ballot at a polling station during the presidential elections in Nur-Sultan, the capital city of Kazakhstan on Sunday. (Kazakhstan’s Presidential Press Office via Associated Press)

On the foreign policy side, Tokayev, who studied at an elite Soviet diplomatic school in Moscow and focused on China, is likely to continue Nazarbayev’s policy of balancing between Russia, China and the West.

That approach has helped Kazakhstan attract foreign investment and open up markets for its oil and metals exports.

The Election Commission reported a turnout of 77 per cent by 8 p.m. Nur-Sultan time (1400 GMT), when polls closed in most of the country, and said it would announce preliminary results on Monday.